The farmers, workers, and pioneers of America in the 1800s were nourished by a tradition of hearty, down home cooking that is still a part of our national cuisine - New England baked beans, roast beef, turkey, corn on the cob, and pumpkin pies. With roots in the British Isles, and with important contributions from Native American food plants and cooking techniques, American food and drink quality and seasonal variety was vastly improved during the 1800s by new technologies in transportation, food storage, hygiene, and preservation, growing national and world markets, and not least the delicious ethnic cuisines of new immigrant groups. Hungry for innovation, quality, and economy, Americans in the 1800s became the best fed nation in the history of the world!
We're all here because of people who met and fell in love in the past! In the 1800s, most young men and women were bound by powerful traditions of family, church, and society that limited their choices in romance and marriage. As an economic and community-building institution, marriage options were traditionally controlled by the older generation. Marriages were often arranged by families, and the bride and groom's personal feelings for each other were much less important than they are today. But as in so many other ways, America was a new and more open society. Communities of people from different and diverse backgrounds were established in a new land, and young people came together in a freer, more open environment. Romantic love flourished in the America of the 1800s as it never had before, with a whole variety of courting and marriage customs, many of which we still cherish today.
Founded on the principles of religious freedom, America in the 1800s was fertile ground for the expansion of religious movements and all kinds of experiments in spiritual matters. Americans in the 1800s took their religion very seriously. Away from the authority of established churches, the American frontier from upstate New York to the wilds of the Utah territory was a hotbed of new, radical religion based on a personal experience of salvation, direct revelation, and enthusiastic, highly emotional gatherings at camp meetings. At the forefront of the movement to abolish slavery and women's rights, idealistic men and women in the more established Protestant churches heard a new social gospel from an educated and progressive clergy. Meanwhile, large numbers of Catholic immigrants and Jews from Central and Eastern Europe established their own religious institutions in a new land. The religious history of America in the 1800s is rich and diverse and highly influential in the social and political evolution of our country.
America's love of sports goes back a long way. Baseball, basketball, and football all came of age in America of the 1800s. While men like Abner Doubleday may not have invented these sports, they did much to popularize them as rules were officially standardized and national-level organizations were founded. Amateur (and, later, professional) teams sprang up in towns, factories, and schools across America and rooting for the home team built strong community bonds and stimulated (usually) friendly rivalries. From horse racing to boxing to competitive target shooting, Americans would watch, cheer for, and bet on just about any contest of strength and skill. The growing class of Americans with leisure and money to spare discovered tennis and golf and polo, and women for the first time participated in competitive sports. Long before the World Series and the Super Bowl, Americans were idolizing their favorite athletes, while they played and watched sports with enthusiasm.
With a six day workweek, long hours on the job, and the hard labor required to keep house, leisure time was precious in the 1800s. Without recorded music, radio, movies, TV, video games, or the Internet, Americans had to make their own fun, and most of it was simple and very low tech - singing around the family piano, visiting with neighbors, or picnicking in the woods. In the bigger towns and cities, theaters offered live, professional entertainment ranging from classic plays to raucous minstrel shows. In the smaller towns and rural areas, people waited anxiously for those few times a year when a traveling show or circus might come through the area. As the 1800s progressed, leisure time and economic resources increased for many Americans and a more sophisticated public demanded new and more exciting amusements. Read all about America at play in the 1800s!
America in the 1800s was a very hardworking society. Early in the century, farmers, craftsmen, and housewives worked very much the way they had for centuries - by their own physical labor and the sweat of their brow. The growing industrial economy brought millions of workers, people leaving their farms and new immigrants, into the factories and workshops of America, where the work was hard, the hours were long, and the pay was low. Women and children made up a large percentage of the industrial workforce, and conditions were often miserable and dangerous. Meanwhile, a small class of industrialists built vast fortunes. As the century progressed, improved technology, workers rights legislation, and the rise of trade unions helped to alleviate some of the misery of American workers, but for much of the 1800s, the lives of an average working class person was one of hard toil, limited opportunities, and the constant threat of poverty.
With the principles of democracy firmly established after the War for Independence, Americans in the 1800s took their politics very seriously. As more and more male citizens gained the right to vote, elections became very public, hotly contested, and sometimes even violent. In the cities and towns of America, politicians courted political power and influence among new immigrant communities; buying votes and stuffing ballot boxes was shockingly common. While the major national political issues of foreign policy, taxation, the abolition of slavery, and states rights took center stage in Congress, Americans split along regional and party lines that still exist in the twenty-first century. Scandals over greed and corruption caused whole city governments to fall, but America also produced some of the greatest statesman and political leaders in its history. Former slaves, poor immigrants, and women demanded their right to vote.
Life on the American frontier of the 1800s is the stuff of American myth and legend. It was here in the wide open spaces of the West that the rugged individualism of the American character was refined: in the strong but silent cowboy, the saloon girl with a heart of gold, and the sod busting pioneer. Faced with the incredible challenges of taming a wilderness, wresting the territory from the Native peoples, and dealing with the hardships of pioneer life, Americans were offered one of the richest opportunities in the history of human kind - the agricultural and mineral resources of a new land. The settling of this land is the story of America, a story of violence, wasted resources, and genocide, as well as heroism, freedom, and incredible opportunity. The Wild West of the 1800s remains for Americans a land of hopes and dreams.
From an isolated and inward-looking new nation clinging to the East Coast, America in the 1800s grew in size, strength, and military might. From the War of 1812 to the century-long campaigns of conquest against Native American peoples, territorial expansion through war with Mexico to the great national tragedy that was the Civil War, American soldiers and sailors forged a tradition of pride and heroism that is part of our national heritage. Sometimes misguided, sometimes truly inspired, nineteenth century America produced some of the greatest military leaders and witnessed some of the bloodiest battles in our history. Behind the scenes, and often neglected in our official histories, the life of America's citizen soldiers was a tough and brutal one. Patriotism, heroism, and human folly all combine in the story of the roots of Americas rise to the status of world military power.
In today's world, where we routinely zip down the highway at 70 miles per hour and we can fly coast-to-coast in a matter of hours, it is hard to imagine the revolution in transportation that took place in the 1800s. From a world where most people rarely traveled faster than their legs could carry them or much beyond their home towns, the 1800s witnessed an amazing and rapid development of technology, improvements in infrastructure, and a national will to conquer the vast distances of a growing country. Through the work of inventors, individual entrepreneurs, and municipalities, Americans found new opportunities for traveling conveniently from place to place within their communities, and a frontier nation was unified by rail, by road, and by a sense of national identity. This is the story of nineteenth century America on the move!
Medicine developed into a science in the 1800s, but it was a long evolution from folk remedies and superstition to a modern understanding of how the human body works and how disease is spread. Throughout much of the century, the life expectancy of the average American was decades shorter than it is now. A lack of understanding of simple hygiene contributed to the early death of many women after childbirth, and children routinely died of common childhood diseases like measles. An incorrectly treated broken arm could kill a healthy young man, and pain, disfigurement, and epidemic disease was the fate of many Americans. Traditional herbal remedies were sometimes the best treatments available, while patent medicines often contained toxic substances, and medical procedures were often painful, disgusting, and ultimately useless. The dedicated scientists and medical researchers of the 1800s made a tremendous contribution to the health and happiness of Americans.
Using the graphics, students can activate prior knowledge--bridge what they already know with what they have yet to learn. Graphically illustrated biographies also teach inference skills, character development, dialogue, transitions, and drawing conclusions. Graphic biographies in the classroom provide an intervention with proven success for the struggling reader.
In graphic-novel format, this brief biography of Martin Luther King Jr. discusses his childhood, his protests and marches, and his "I Have a Dream" speech.
Written in graphic novel format, this brief biography of Babe Ruth describes his childhood, marriage, and success as a baseball player.
Women have made major contributions to science throughout history, including in building the foundation of our current scientific knowledge. Learn about the lives of some of the most amazing women who have changed our scientific understanding, from Marie Curie to Ellen Swallow Richards, as well as their exciting and important work. Discover what it takes to be a leader in science. Find out about the opportunities for women in the field. Read Women Who Built Our Scientific Foundations to see if following in the footsteps of the many brilliant women who have made their mark in science is something you want to do.
The more than 3,800-year-old history of the land known as Mexico is populated with great military and political leaders, inspirational artists and writers, and extraordinary women. This book provides biographical information about some of the most important figures in Mexico's history, including the Aztec emperors Itzcoatl, Montezuma, and Montezuma II; the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés; the 19th century political leaders Agustín de Iturbide, Antonio López de Santa Anna, Benito Juárez, and Porfirio Díaz; the revolutionaries Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa; and artists like Diego Rivera, Octavio Paz, Carlos Fuentes, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, and Frida Kahlo. Their biographies show how the contributions of these famous people, and others, made Mexico the nation it is today.
The land that today is known as Mexico has been inhabited for thousands of years. This book provides a historical survey of the major pre-Columbian civilizations, such as the Olmec, Maya, Toltec, and Aztecs. It examines how the population of Mexico was changed by the arrival of Spanish conquistadors in the 16th century, and their subsequent three centuries of rule over the country. And it provides demographic and cultural information about the more than 118 million people who live in Mexico today.
For thousands of years, humans have lived and worked in the land that today is known as Mexico. This book provides an overview of Mexican history, from the origins of its ancient civilizations, such as the Olmec and Maya, to the arrival and impact of Spanish conquistadors in the 16th century, to the struggles for Mexico to become a stable, modern, independent state during the 19th and 20th centuries. This book also examines the present-day issues that affect Mexico, including widespread poverty and economic inequality, as well as a brutal internal conflict between government forces and powerful drug cartels.
Young or old, playful or terrifying, clad in the brocades of the 16th century or the jeans of today, the phantoms of these tales vary as much as the places they haunt. Whatever their demeanor, wherever they are, however their actions are explained or dismissed, these ghosts have a common power: anyone reading this anthology will see that they still haunt us today.
Born on January 1, 1900, on a family farm in the mountains of North Carolina, Medford McGee grows up awestruck by the rapid changes that blazon the New American Century and the promise of new opportunities that come along with these changes .
This fifth volume in W.C. Jameson's Buried Treasure series contains 38 tales and legends about Native American Indian hoards, Civil War caches, lost mines, and robbery stashes. Jameson includes classic treasure stories like The Lost Treasure of Pirate William Kirk (Virginia), Chief Sontechee's Silver Hoard (North Carolina), Natchez Trace: Treasure Trail (Mississippi) that are part myth and part history.
The Mid-Atlantic States are rich in history, legends of lost fortunes, and buried treasure stories. This twelfth book in W.C. Jameson's Buried Treasure collection offers thirty tales of this region that have remained largely untold for generations. Lost mines, buried loot, caches of gold and silver ingots, gangsters, Native American Indians, pirates, chests of precious stones -- such are the ingredients of a rich stew of folklore gathered from the melting pot of the Mid-Atlantic region.
Do Native Americans know the location of the cursed Lost Gold of Devil's Sink? Did Sir Francis Drake bury millions of dollars' worth of ancient Incan treasures? Has anyone found the box of gold coins buried by a reputed giant in the Washington rain forest? Is there a noble family's fortune buried near an old log cabin in the Cascades? The Pacific Northwest provides a picturesque backdrop for these stories as it stretches from the rugged coastline east over the snowy mountains and into the vast plateau that leads to Idaho. For over a century, outlaws, prospectors, Russians, Indians, loners, soldiers, and immigrants have thrown themselves into all of the adventure and intrigue money can buy.
These 32 tales from the Backbone of America include The Gold Behind the Waterfall (Arizona), The Treasure of Deadman Cave (Colorado), Lava Cave Cache (Idaho), Henry Plummer's Lost Gold (Montana), The Curse of the Lost Sheepherder's Mine (Nevada), Lost Train Robbery Loot in Cibola County (New Mexico), Eighty Ingots in Spanish Gold (Utah), and Lost Ledge of Gold (Wyoming). As Jameson points out in his introduction, the Rocky Mountains still have many remote areas that even today can only be reached on horseback or on foot. Centuries ago Native American Indians, Spaniards, explorers, prospectors, miners, the occasional wandering cowboy and even outlaws fleeing the law roamed these rugged mountains. Today this land remains laced with hidden treasures just waiting to be found.
The dusty trails heading west of the Mississippi provided intrigue, adventure, and danger for the men and women who set out in search of a new life and fortune. Outlaws along with pioneers and forty-niners traveled this frontier often, finding and losing riches along the way. The Great Plains region - loaded with history from Native Americans, Spanish explorers, and Mexican, German, and Scots-Irish settlers, holds some of the country's most promising opportunities for finding buried treasure. Scattered from North Dakota to Texas, these stories provide a glimpse into the lives of fleeing outlaws, hard-working ranchers, priests, prospectors, and immigrantsall entwined in their search for treasure.