The Civil Rights Movement was an organized protest by black Americans against their government and the refusal to obey unjust laws during the 1950s, 60s, and 70s. This important book details the evidence in the decades before the movement that led up to the protests: black Americans were denied the right to vote, work, and become citizens. Readers will learn how prejudice and circumstances at the time of an event can influence people's interpretation of evidence. They will discover how evidence from both sides of the Civil Rights struggle was used to change and create laws, and how, even today, our opinion of the Civil Rights Movement is still changing. Readers will learn how to use critical thinking in their own examinations of evidence. Present-day examples show how history repeats itself when evidence is denied or interpreted to one side's benefit.
From about 1820 to its height in the early 1900s, the United States and Canada experienced a huge influx of people from other countries seeking to become citizens. This fascinating book details the historical evidence that helps explain why there was a mass migration of people from around the world. Readers will learn how prejudice and circumstances at the time of an event can influence people's interpretation of evidence, including items such as passports and other immigration documents, transportation tickets, engravings, photographs, paintings, and newspaper stories. Readers will learn how to use critical thinking in their own examinations of evidence. Present-day examples show how history repeats itself when evidence is denied or interpreted to one side's benefit.
The Holocaust was the deliberate extermination of Jews and other people deemed undesirable by Germany's Nazi party during World War II. This thoughtful book examines evidence from the early 1900s of racism, intolerance, and nationalism in Germany that historians believe led up to this genocide and ethnic cleansing. Readers will learn how prejudice and circumstances at the time of an event can influence people's interpretation of evidence and how that perspective can change over time. They will also learn how to use critical thinking in their own examinations of evidence. Present-day examples show how history repeats itself when evidence is denied or interpreted to one side's benefit.
This fascinating book explores the growth and spread of Muslim peoples from the early 600s to the end of the Ottoman Empire. Early Islamic empires spread from the Middle East to the far corners of Asia and into Europe. The stories of the Umayyds, Abbasids, Al-Andalus, Fatimids, Crusades, Mongols, Safavids, and the Moghul and Ottoman empires are revealed. Key conquests and battles including the Crusades are detailed.
In the 1800s, the Underground Railroad was a system of secret routes and safe places to hide for black slaves trying to escape to freedom. This astonishing book details the evidence that led up to the acceptance of slavery as well as the rejection of it. Readers will discover that when faced with evidence of the plight of slaves, such as slave auction posters, engravings, photographs, and interviews, white people had varying views depending on whether they benefited from slavery themselves. Readers will learn how prejudice and circumstances at the time of an event can influence people's interpretation of evidence and how that perspective can change over time. They will also learn how to use critical thinking in their own examinations of evidence. Present-day examples show how history repeats itself when evidence is denied or interpreted to one side's benefit.
The first monarchies date back to about the time civilization began. Many existing monarchies have survived for centuries. The monarchy of Great Britain is more than 1,000 years old. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
This book introduces pioneer pilots Otto Lilienthal, the Wright brothers, Roland Garros, and Anthony Fokker. Flying aces such as the Red Baron, Albert Ball, and Edward Mannock are also discussed. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
Begins with a factual overview of the War of 1812 and then continues with a fictional story centering on Sophie Turner and her father. The Turners are slaves owned by President James Madison and his wife, Dolley. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
Socialism developed as a reaction to the capitalistic ideals of competition and profit. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels created a communist form of socialism in which the change would take place quickly. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
At the start of the Middle Ages, governments were practically nonexistent. Leaders couldn't organize their subjects or protect their borders. Feudalism evolved to bring the leaders and nobility together. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
Although women had participated in previous wars, World War II was the first war that officially allowed women to serve in the armed forces. Women in the military attended boot camp, took classes, and were trained for military jobs. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
This book discusses the history, daily life, and religion of ancient Greece. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
This book explains how the Vikings were a civilization of extraordinary explorers and creative craftspeople who influenced much of Western history. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
Democracies began in ancient Athens and Rome in the sixth century B.C. These early democracies were the models for American democracy, which became the model for other modern democracies. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
Discusses the Apollo project, space flight to the moon.
In rough frontier cabins, tidy farmhouses, and elegant townhouses, Americans in the 1800s were dedicated to living as well and as comfortably as their circumstances allowed. The American home was a sacred institution, the seat of family life where the patriarch ruled with Mother at his side as guardian of the home, and the children were raised with strict discipline and strong values. Changes in taste and fashion, improvements in technology (indoor plumbing and a host of new laborsaving devices), and social change transformed home and family life in the 1800s, as opportunities for leisure activities and commercially produced consumer goods came within reach of the average American. But the strong American tradition of the sanctity of the home, consumerism, and the importance of a happy family life has its roots in the homes of nineteenth century Americans.
For most of the 1800s, children were considered small, unruly adults who needed to be strictly disciplined and put to useful work as soon as they were able. The very concept of childhood itself, as a carefree, innocent time, is a result of increasing economic stability and changing family roles in the 1800s. Before child welfare laws were enacted and compulsory education enforced, children made up an important part of the industrial and agricultural workforce in 1800s America. Toys and time for games and fun may have been a luxury, but kids will be kids, and the adults that loved them made sure their lives weren't all work and no play. The establishment of public schools, more humane working conditions, and expanding economic opportunities helped improve the life of Americas children in the 1800s, but they worked hard and their pleasures were simple ones.
American society in the 1800s had a rough edge to it. In a nation made up of people of diverse backgrounds and heritage, social controls needed to be strict and enforceable. The extreme economic inequality of Americas cities and the wide open moral code of the frontier led to a culture of crime and violence that still plagues our country. During the 1800s, professional police forces were established in cities, towns, and territories across the continent. On the frontier, justice was often swift and severe, with hanging judges making their reputations as representatives of the law in a lawless land. Long prison sentences in miserable conditions were the rule for criminals, and many a prisoner might have preferred the option of a quick execution. Before the reform of the legal system, which is an ongoing process, there was definitely a separate law, and a separate standard of penalties, for the rich and for the poor. The evolution of a humane penal system and a fairer protection of all citizens under the law is an important contribution of 1800s America to the modern world.
The farmers, workers, and pioneers of America in the 1800s were nourished by a tradition of hearty, down home cooking that is still a part of our national cuisine - New England baked beans, roast beef, turkey, corn on the cob, and pumpkin pies. With roots in the British Isles, and with important contributions from Native American food plants and cooking techniques, American food and drink quality and seasonal variety was vastly improved during the 1800s by new technologies in transportation, food storage, hygiene, and preservation, growing national and world markets, and not least the delicious ethnic cuisines of new immigrant groups. Hungry for innovation, quality, and economy, Americans in the 1800s became the best fed nation in the history of the world!
We're all here because of people who met and fell in love in the past! In the 1800s, most young men and women were bound by powerful traditions of family, church, and society that limited their choices in romance and marriage. As an economic and community-building institution, marriage options were traditionally controlled by the older generation. Marriages were often arranged by families, and the bride and groom's personal feelings for each other were much less important than they are today. But as in so many other ways, America was a new and more open society. Communities of people from different and diverse backgrounds were established in a new land, and young people came together in a freer, more open environment. Romantic love flourished in the America of the 1800s as it never had before, with a whole variety of courting and marriage customs, many of which we still cherish today.
While often behind the scenes and hidden from history, women in 1800s America worked side by side with men in building our nation. On the frontier, strong, capable women worked as hard or harder than their menfolk, taming the land and raising the crops while shouldering the responsibilities of keeping house and caring for the children. The life of the farm wife in the settled parts of the country was one of sunup to sundown labor in an era with few modern conveniences. And in urban areas, working class women were a major part of the workforce in an industrializing economy, while middle and upper class women influenced America's social movements, supported charities, and helped beautify the gritty cities. In the course of the 1800s, new labor saving technologies in the home, improved health conditions, greater economic and educational opportunities, and a growing sense of their rights helped to empower women and started the movement toward full equality with men that continues to this day.
Founded on the principles of religious freedom, America in the 1800s was fertile ground for the expansion of religious movements and all kinds of experiments in spiritual matters. Americans in the 1800s took their religion very seriously. Away from the authority of established churches, the American frontier from upstate New York to the wilds of the Utah territory was a hotbed of new, radical religion based on a personal experience of salvation, direct revelation, and enthusiastic, highly emotional gatherings at camp meetings. At the forefront of the movement to abolish slavery and women's rights, idealistic men and women in the more established Protestant churches heard a new social gospel from an educated and progressive clergy. Meanwhile, large numbers of Catholic immigrants and Jews from Central and Eastern Europe established their own religious institutions in a new land. The religious history of America in the 1800s is rich and diverse and highly influential in the social and political evolution of our country.
America's love of sports goes back a long way. Baseball, basketball, and football all came of age in America of the 1800s. While men like Abner Doubleday may not have invented these sports, they did much to popularize them as rules were officially standardized and national-level organizations were founded. Amateur (and, later, professional) teams sprang up in towns, factories, and schools across America and rooting for the home team built strong community bonds and stimulated (usually) friendly rivalries. From horse racing to boxing to competitive target shooting, Americans would watch, cheer for, and bet on just about any contest of strength and skill. The growing class of Americans with leisure and money to spare discovered tennis and golf and polo, and women for the first time participated in competitive sports. Long before the World Series and the Super Bowl, Americans were idolizing their favorite athletes, while they played and watched sports with enthusiasm.
With a six day workweek, long hours on the job, and the hard labor required to keep house, leisure time was precious in the 1800s. Without recorded music, radio, movies, TV, video games, or the Internet, Americans had to make their own fun, and most of it was simple and very low tech - singing around the family piano, visiting with neighbors, or picnicking in the woods. In the bigger towns and cities, theaters offered live, professional entertainment ranging from classic plays to raucous minstrel shows. In the smaller towns and rural areas, people waited anxiously for those few times a year when a traveling show or circus might come through the area. As the 1800s progressed, leisure time and economic resources increased for many Americans and a more sophisticated public demanded new and more exciting amusements. Read all about America at play in the 1800s!
Life on the American frontier of the 1800s is the stuff of American myth and legend. It was here in the wide open spaces of the West that the rugged individualism of the American character was refined: in the strong but silent cowboy, the saloon girl with a heart of gold, and the sod busting pioneer. Faced with the incredible challenges of taming a wilderness, wresting the territory from the Native peoples, and dealing with the hardships of pioneer life, Americans were offered one of the richest opportunities in the history of human kind - the agricultural and mineral resources of a new land. The settling of this land is the story of America, a story of violence, wasted resources, and genocide, as well as heroism, freedom, and incredible opportunity. The Wild West of the 1800s remains for Americans a land of hopes and dreams.