George Washington Carver was born a slave, but he became an important scientist and teacher. He experimented with soil and became famous for his work as a botanist. He used peanuts and other plants to make new products. Before Carver's research, plants were only used for food and clothing. His creative approach to agriculture taught people that plants could be used to make many products, like rubber, ink, fuel, and paper, to name a few.
Hippocrates was a Greek doctor who is called The Father of Medicine. Before he was born around 460 B.C., there was little science in medicine. Doctors thought the gods were to blame for illness. Hippocrates studied the human body and tried to figure out what caused disease so he could develop cures. Hippocrates suggested rules for doctors to follow. The Hippocratic Oath, which doctors still follow, was based on his teachings.
Many talented and skilled immigrants came to America from various places in the world and brought with them their own cultures and traditions to enrich the American culture and way of life. Among the famous immigrants whose lives have impacted the twentieth century are Elijah McCoy, Irving Berlin, Father Edward Flanagan, and I. M. Pei.
Several major industrialists facilitated the growth of industry in America. These individuals, including Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, J. P. Morgan, and Henry Ford, were responsible for building industries that employed many people and provided commodities necessary for life in the United States.
The Middle East is comprised of many small countries, each with its own government. Volatile issues of religious extremism, the supply and demand of oil, and the establishment of the nation of Israel in 1948 have caused constant conflict. Several prominent leaders have arisen in the Middle East and have worked toward peace in this region, while others have been instigators of violence throughout the world.
Martin Luther King Jr. grew up knowing that there needed to be a change in the way that African Americans were treated, and he held a dream from the time he was a young boy that he would help make that change happen. Unlike most of the activists in the Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King Jr. was committed to nonviolence.
Eleanor Roosevelt lived during an exciting time. Women had just gained the right to vote. As a first lady, she made her own agenda and gave her husband, Franklin D. Roosevelt, plenty of advice. She stood up for the weak and advocated for equal rights regardless of gender or skin color.