Mesopotamia was located in the Middle East. It was made up of empires such as the Babylonian Empire, Assyrian Empire, Persian Empire, and Phoenician Empire. The Mesopotamians made many contributions to the world, including creating the wheel and glass, using irrigation to farm, creating an alphabet, and developing a calendar system. Each empire made contributions and influenced the world as it exists today.
Hammurabi was a king of Babylon, but he wanted to rule the entire area of Mesopotamia. After only five years of being king, Hammurabi reached his goal. During his reign, Hammurabi did many things to improve and influence both the culture and government of Mesopotamia.
China is the third largest country in the world. China is known for its silk, the Great Wall, and its rich history of dynasties and kings. The Chinese culture has changed greatly over the years, but the Chinese people still celebrate the great changes in their culture and nation.
Confucius was a philosopher who devoted his life to relieving the suffering he saw. His philosophy stressed the natural order of a moral, just, society. After his death, his followers shared his teachings, influencing future generations.
Africa, the second largest continent on Earth, is home to the largest desert and the longest river in the world. Savannas, which are large areas of grass and trees, cover much of Africa. Trade routes gave rise to ancient kingdoms such as the Kush and Aksum. With these and other great kingdoms in Africa, the continent has a rich history in culture, trade, and tradition.
The Greek culture is rich in arts, philosophy, and government. Various civilizations contributed to the Greek culture. The Greeks saw the rise of city-states, as well as the first democratic form of government. Greek gods and Greek wars also influenced the culture. Through these influences, a great nation and culture was developed.
Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher who helped shape Greek beliefs. Socrates believed his purpose in life was to gain wisdom and find the truth by asking questions. Socrates made many people over his methods of teaching. He was arrested and sentenced to death. But, many of Socrates's ideas and beliefs can still be found today.
Siddhartha Gautama was born to the king of a tribe in Northern India. An astrologer told his father that Gautama would either become a king or he would leave his riches behind to save humanity. His father sheltered him from all of the poverty in the streets. When Gautama finally left his palace he saw the suffering of people and wanted to change the world. He started the religion called Buddhism.
India's history is closely tied to its location. Because it is between the East and the West, it has been invaded and overtaken multiple times. Each culture that came made a lasting contribution in some way. India has made many transformations of its history, twice splitting into many separate kingdoms. By the early 1800's Great Britain moved into India. Schools and hospitals were built and roads were paved. However, the Indians did not like living under British rule and they fought and gained their independence in 1947.
Hatshepsut was a young woman who became the first female pharaoh of Egypt. When her father, Thutmose I, died, Hatshepsut was the only heir. Since she was female, leaders were afraid to make her Pharaoh. She declared herself Pharaoh in 1501 B.C. and ruled Egypt for about 20 years.
Ancient Egyptian civilizations first began along the Nile River when nomads grew tired of the dangers of traveling and settled into villages for safety. With a gift for building, they began to create their own bricks and later discovered a way to build from stone; this lead to the construction of the great pyramids. Pharaohs ruled the society and were highly respected. Because of its location Pharaohs had a difficult time protecting the land from intruders and Egypt was eventually conquered by the Roman Empire.
From the Vikings to Henry Hudson, the great explorers sailed across uncharted waters during the Age of Discovery in search of many things, including adventure and wealth. Their exploration not only changed maps of the world but also paved the way for the settlement of the New World.
The colonies were the birthplace of the United States and they were made up of people that came from various backgrounds seeking religious freedom, wealth, and success. Daily life for the colonists was different depending on the region in which they lived, yet they established a united nation built on freedom and the pursuit of happiness.