This nonfiction book invites readers to learn about the very first United States Congress and government. Readers will learn about colonists' frustrations with the British and what caused them to create the First and Second Contintental Congress, Committees of Correspondence, and the Declaration of Independence. With plenty of colorful images, easy to read text, and engaging sidebars, readers will be fascinated from cover to cover as they are introduced to the three branches of US government--executive, legislative, and judicial. A glossary and table of contents are provided for assistance for better understanding the content.
Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 with the intent of moving five large tribes to Indian Territory. The tribes could either move to the reservations or assimilate. As settlers kept moving west, more and more tribes were encountered, and all ultimately found themselves going to reservations. This new way of life was a vast change for the Indians.
After problems developed with the Articles of Confederation, America's leaders wrote the U.S. Constitution. Although our founding fathers were happy with their work on the Constitution, it was missing an important part. The Bill of Rights was soon added to protect individual American rights.
John Jay served in all three branches of the government. Once the Constitution was written, he was a staunch supporter of the document, joining some other men in anonymously writing â€œThe Federalist Papers,â€ which explained to the public why the Constitution should be ratified. Soon after, he was made chief justice of the Supreme Court, and he was given the position of declaring laws unconstitutional for the very first time.
Great Britain passed the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts, which made colonists angry. Eventually they boycotted and refused to purchase British goods. Great Britain sent soldiers to the colonies, which caused conflict like the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party. "Common Sense" by Thomas Paine helped convince people that they were no longer British citizens. The foundation for the American Revolution had been laid.
Lewis and Clark were commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson to find a water route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. The men were also asked to explore the newly purchased Louisiana Territory. They never found a water route, but they successfully documented information about the new lands.
When President James Madison declared war on Great Britain for a second time, the War of 1812 began. Problems started when America sent ships out to sea to trade with other countries. The war eventually ended, and the Treaty of Ghent was signed. America earned the respect of the British as a free, independent nation.
James Madison made great contributions to the United States. During his presidency, he declared war on Great Britain. Not all of his decisions met public approval, but he was well respected throughout his lifetime and one of the most influential founding fathers.
Pioneers experienced hardships during their journey through the West, which led them on the Oregon Trail and the Santa Fe Trail. The moving and travels of these pioneers affected not only their lives, but also the American Indians, America's animals, and the country.
Laura Ingalls Wilder grew up as a pioneer girl and endured the difficult times in the West. Wilder made important contributions to the West. Other pioneer women contributed as well, including Narcissa Whitman, the first female pioneer.
Slavery was a complicated issue that divided the country to the point of war. Even after the war, slavery was not totally resolved. Freedom came because of the foresight of many people like Abraham Lincoln, the Quakers, and the abolitionists who believed that people were all created equal.
Harriet Tubman was a slave who dreamed of freedom from a very young age. After her escape at 29, she did everything she could to help and rescue other slaves. In her later years, she built a home to take care of elderly African Americans with no place to live and encouraged women to stand together for their rights.
Sitting Bull was a powerful Hunkpapa Lakota Indian Chief whoâ€”along with the Lakota Indians and other nearby tribesâ€”was involved in brutal battles with the United States over land issues. All tribes that were fighting to avoid the reservation eventually surrendered, and the Lakota people were no exception.
During the 1800s, the United States was in conflict over slavery. Though compromises were made, neither side was pleased. Abolitionists and pro-slavery people engaged in conflicts and often deadly clashes. With South Carolina and other southern states seceding, war was inevitable.
Abraham Lincoln was president during one of the most unique times in history. With a country on the brink of war, his ultimate goal was to keep the Union together. When Lincoln freed the slaves, he angered many Southerners, including his assassin, John Wilkes Booth.
Robert E. Lee was considered by many to be an amazing man of character, determination, and talent. Confederate President Jefferson Davis hired him as his assistant for the war. Soon he was commanding the Army of Northern Virginia, and he commanded until his men could fight no more. In the end, he resigned with dignity and asked his men to do the same.
Ulysses S. Grant was a warrior, hero, and a compassionate soldier. Grant led the Union army to victory during the Civil War. The North thought of him as a hero for ending the Civil War and elected him president of the United States.
Forces can't be seen, but without them, nothing around us would happen! A force is a push or pull that usually causes movement. Friction is a force that opposes motion and slows things down or stops them. Famous scientist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton wrote the rules about forces and motion.
Electromagnetism is the combined power of electricity and magnetism. Almost everything we doâ€”from watching television to using a computerâ€”is affected by electromagnets. In the 1830s, scientist Michael Faraday proved that electricity and magnetism are different ways to observe a unified force that he called electromagnetism.
There are 90 different elements, like the oxygen that we breathe, that can be found in nature. When two or more elements combine, they are held together by a chemical bond and form a compound. In 1869, chemist Dmitri Mendeléev organized the elements into a chart that is known as the Periodic Table of Elements.
What things do all animals have in common? How do scientists classify animals? How are humans classified and what makes them different? Enter the animal kingdom with zoologists who study animals! You'll explore how scientists use a system called taxonomy to classify and organize different kinds of living things as you explore the wonderful world of animals.
The years between World War I and World War II were years of change and reform. The role of women changed and the social status of African Americans began the slow process of reform. Industry continued to grow as the demand for cars increased. When the Great Depression occurred in 1929, life in America changed drastically as many people found themselves poor and homeless.
Many talented and skilled immigrants came to America from various places in the world and brought with them their own cultures and traditions to enrich the American culture and way of life. Among the famous immigrants whose lives have impacted the twentieth century are Elijah McCoy, Irving Berlin, Father Edward Flanagan, and I. M. Pei.
Several major industrialists facilitated the growth of industry in America. These individuals, including Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, J. P. Morgan, and Henry Ford, were responsible for building industries that employed many people and provided commodities necessary for life in the United States.
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain during the 1700s and spread to America in the early 1800s as the colonies formed and grew. Industrialism provided the means for development and expansion in America as life transitioned from rural beginnings to large cities. Industry was a large factor for innovation and employment at the beginning of the twentieth century.