Do you know who started the first volunteer fire company in the United States? Do you know who the first woman firefighter was? Or did you know that firefighters trace their heritage back to the knights of the Crusades? Sirens and Smoke is full of stories of bravery and tradition. You'll read about: the brave guards who fought fire in ancient Greek and Roman communities; the long-ago firefighters who battled the great fires that swept through Europe's big cities; the community spirit that grew in the New World. the African Americans; the women who added their strengths to fighting fires; and September 11, 2001, when firefighters demonstrated their heroism. Fire can be an enemy - but down through the ages, firefighters have risked their lives to protect others against it. Their folklore reveals a long tradition of courage.
Native Americans have an incredibly rich store of knowledge when it comes to using herbs and plants to heal illness, treat injuries, and cure disease. In fact, some of their traditions have found a place in the modern medicines we use today. This book discusses the nature-based approach Native Americans took towards healing. It also examines important figures, such as shamans and medicine men, and explains some of the remedies and rituals that were conducted.
While Native American religious beliefs vary from tribe to tribe, the one thing they have in common is a belief in a higher power. This power has many names: Manitou, Wakanda, Sila, or even just the Great Spirit. This book discusses the various beliefs held by tribes in each region of the Americas. It also describes some of the important rituals practiced in each religion.
The Native Americans fought with other tribes for a variety of reasons. Depending on the area in which they lived, a tribe could fight for territory, possessions, or simply as a matter of pride or to right a perceived wrong. This book discusses some of the best known Native American rivalries, the reasons behind them, and the impact the arrival of Europeans during the 16th through the 19th centuries had on these rivalries.
Native Americans loved to play games. From the United States to Mexico to Canada, tribes everywhere played games as part of their rituals, to cure diseases, to make crops grow, or sometimes, just for the pure fun of the sport. This book discusses the types of games played by various tribes in specific regions. It also explains how these games were played, and the significance-religious and social-of each contest.
The tools and weapons used by Native American tribes were not just functional. Often, these tools and weapons were created during a special ceremony or ritual, so there was a spiritual significance to them as well. Shamans or medicine men would bless such items in the hope that they would serve their owners well. This book discusses the primary tools and weapons made by tribes in specific regions as well as how these tools and weapons were created and used.
The clothing worn by the members of different Native American tribes reflected their environments. Clothing, jewelry, and other decorative items were made from material found in the area around them-from sealskins and shells to buckskin and porcupine quills. This book discusses common clothing items of various Native American tribes as well as the cultural or religions significance of these items
Do you like corn on the cob? What about popcorn? How about tortilla chips, cornbread, and cornflakes? You've probably eaten these foods made from corn, but you might be surprised to discover you eat a lot more corn than you think. Corn is also hidden in many other kinds of food, even in things like meat and applesauce. Corn feeds the world in lots of ways. Discover the story of your food - where it was grown, who grows it, and how it gets to your plate.
Most of us have a lot of reasons to say thank you to cows! Every time we drink a glass of milk, spread butter on our toast, or lick an ice cream cone, were eating dairy products - foods that come from cows milk. Find out how farmers get milk, what factories do to make dairy products, and how these foods reach your refrigerator. Discover the story of your food - where it was grown, who grows it, and how it gets to your plate.
People all over the world eat eggs, mostly from chickens. Learn about the history of eating eggs and how we get our eggs today. Follow eggs as they make their way from chickens . . . to packing machines . . . to the grocery store . . . and finally to you! Discover the story of your food - where it was grown, who grows it, and how it gets to your plate.
Lots of our food comes from farms, and so do fish! Some fish are caught in the wild, but we also eat fish that are raised on farms. Find out what fish farms look like, what fish farmers do, and how fish get from the farm to you. Discover the story of your food - where it was grown, who grows it, and how it gets to your plate.
Many people eat meat every day. From steak to hamburgers, from turkey dinners to hotdogs at the baseball game, meat is a part of most peoples daily lives. Learn about the animals we eat, the places that produce meat, and the people who make it all happen. Discover the story of your food - where it was grown, who grows it, and how it gets to your plate.
Rice is one of the most important foods in the world. In countries around the globe, lots and lots of people eat rice every single day. Find out where farmers grow rice, how its grown, and how it arrives at the grocery store. Discover the story of your food - where it was grown, who grows it, and how it gets to your plate.
Maybe you've eaten fresh soybeans, but you probably eat a lot more soybeans than you think. Soybeans are found in a lot of foods. They're made into soy milk and tofu and vegetable oil. They're hidden in meat. Find out more about soybeans - how they're grown and how they're made into foods you eat every day. Discover the story of your food - where it was grown, who grows it, and how it gets to your plate.
Wheat is a plant that most of us eat every day. The flour used to bake bread, cookies, and cakes is made out of wheat. Pasta and pizza crust are made from wheat flour too. We eat wheat in cereals and in snacks. Discover how all this wheat is grown, and how it gets from the field to the factory . . . and then to your kitchen. Discover the story of your food - where it was grown, who grows it, and how it gets to your plate.
After Christopher Columbus and other European adventurers landed in the Americas during the 15th and 16th centuries, the lands they explored were often called the "New World." However, North, South, and Central America were new only to the people of Europe. Native Americans had lived on the land for millions of years.In some cases, the natives and Europeans were able to live in peace and even learned from each other. Most of the time, however, the European invaders brought with them disease and violence, which spelled the end of the Native Americans' way of life.
From the woodland tribes to the tribes of Mexico and the Caribbean and all the way to the Arctic, Native American houses reflected the environments in which various tribes lived. Furthermore, Native American homes also reflected the deep spiritual life of a people. The way in which they were built, the materials used, and even the direction the house faced was significant. This book provides an understanding of the different homes built by the Native Americans from longhouses to tepees to igloos to pueblos.
The hunting practices of Native Americans differed throughout North and South America. Some hunted with bows and arrows, others with spears and clubs, and still others with snares and traps. This book discusses the ways in which Native Americans hunted in different regions, the weapons they used, and the types of animals that were hunted. It also describes the rituals the tribes performed before hunting, and explains how they used not only the meat, but also the bones, hide, and sinews of the animals they killed.
When Europeans arrived in the Americas during the 16th and 17th centuries, they found that some Native American tribes had created alliances, or confederacies. These agreements allowed the member tribes of the confederacy to control trade and keep the peace in their region. This book explains how these Native American confederacies were formed, discusses some famous examples like the Iroquois Confederacy, and explains how Native American groups continue to work together for the good of all tribes in the present day.
The diet of Native American tribes reflected the areas in which they lived. For some tribes, like those of the Pacific Northwest, salmon was a staple part of the diet; for the people of the Great Plains, the buffalo was hunted for food. This book discusses the foods common to various tribes as well as the cultural significance certain foods had for specific tribes.
To an outsider, Native American family life may seem simple. In reality, the societies within Native American tribes are incredibly rich and complex. Nor is family life the same from tribe to tribe. Some tribes are organized into clans; others trace their lineage according to matrilineal lines. This book discusses some of the familial arrangements of various tribes, including the reasons for such arrangements as well as the roles individuals played in their respective societies.
From pre-Columbian times to the present day, Native Americans have enjoyed celebrating holidays and other special occasions. Tribes celebrated festivals and ceremonies throughout the year. These included everything from significant events in a person's life, the changing of the seasons, the arrival of special people or places, and elements of nature. This book discusses the important festivals and ceremonies celebrated by tribes in specific regions, outlining the form of the festival and how each was celebrated.
Contrary to popular belief, Native Americans did not always have horses to assist them in their daily lives. For thousands of years they carried items themselves or even used dogs. The arrival of the horse in the Americas during the 16th century dramatically changed the lifestyles of many Native American tribes. This was particularly true of the people living on the Great Plains. This book discusses the introduction of the horse to the Native Americans by the Spanish and explains the impact this had on various Native American tribes.
Prior to becoming a "melting pot" of many languages, the continents of North and South America were already home to a variety of Native American tribes, each with its own language. What's more, subsets of tribes often had their own dialects, sometimes making communication between two people nearly impossible, even if they lived near each other. This book discusses the major Native American languages used by tribes in various regions and how some of their words have been incorporated into the English language today.