A comprehensive look at the history, people, technology, and future of space exploration. This book is at the reading level of 3.6 with a word count of 1133.
Abigail lived during times which were much more difficult for women than today. Despite this fact, Abigail Adams traveled, believed in women's rights, and experienced the American Revolution. A devoted wife, mother, and American patriot, Abigail influenced history by helping her husband, John, make important decisions.
Christopher Columbus set out on August 3, 1492, to find the East by sailing west. Over the course of a few years, he convinced the king and queen of Spain to pay for his trip, promising them fame and riches in return. Columbus discovered more than he bargained forâ€”he had found a new continent.
Phillis Wheatley was the first black person in America to have a book published, opening the door for other black writers and female authors. She was kidnapped and brought to the colonies as a child and served as a slave to a family in Boston. Phillis learned to read and write at a young age.
Pocahontas was the daughter of the great Chief Powhatan. Pocahontas was instrumental in helping Jamestown settlers survive a difficult winter and literally keeping peace between two diverse cultures.
Thomas Jefferson was a gifted writer whose words helped form the country. Although at one time he wanted to be a great speaker, he found comfort and ease in writing. Not only was he a great writer, but also an architect, inventor, surveyor, scientist, and a brilliant politician. He wanted to make life better for all people.
George Washington helped form the United States into what it is today by making wise decisions. After becoming a war hero in the French and Indian War, he went on to lead a fight against the British in the American Revolution. He continued his legacy by becoming the first president of the United States.
John Jay served in all three branches of the government. Once the Constitution was written, he was a staunch supporter of the document, joining some other men in anonymously writing â€œThe Federalist Papers,â€ which explained to the public why the Constitution should be ratified. Soon after, he was made chief justice of the Supreme Court, and he was given the position of declaring laws unconstitutional for the very first time.
Lewis and Clark were commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson to find a water route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. The men were also asked to explore the newly purchased Louisiana Territory. They never found a water route, but they successfully documented information about the new lands.
James Madison made great contributions to the United States. During his presidency, he declared war on Great Britain. Not all of his decisions met public approval, but he was well respected throughout his lifetime and one of the most influential founding fathers.
Laura Ingalls Wilder grew up as a pioneer girl and endured the difficult times in the West. Wilder made important contributions to the West. Other pioneer women contributed as well, including Narcissa Whitman, the first female pioneer.
Harriet Tubman was a slave who dreamed of freedom from a very young age. After her escape at 29, she did everything she could to help and rescue other slaves. In her later years, she built a home to take care of elderly African Americans with no place to live and encouraged women to stand together for their rights.
Sitting Bull was a powerful Hunkpapa Lakota Indian Chief whoâ€”along with the Lakota Indians and other nearby tribesâ€”was involved in brutal battles with the United States over land issues. All tribes that were fighting to avoid the reservation eventually surrendered, and the Lakota people were no exception.
Abraham Lincoln was president during one of the most unique times in history. With a country on the brink of war, his ultimate goal was to keep the Union together. When Lincoln freed the slaves, he angered many Southerners, including his assassin, John Wilkes Booth.
Ulysses S. Grant was a warrior, hero, and a compassionate soldier. Grant led the Union army to victory during the Civil War. The North thought of him as a hero for ending the Civil War and elected him president of the United States.
Batter up and explore the comprehensive history of America's favorite pastimeâ€”baseball! This fun book features baseball's timeline, which follows the evolution of the baseball official rules through time. Also addressed are the first African American and Women's baseball leagues. Photos will keep readers engaged and vocabulary related to the game and its history is provided.
Some of the first geologists came from ancient Greece and Egypt. Later, scientists in China studied how land was formed and figured out how erosion wears away mountains, rocks, and other landforms. Scottish scientist James Hutton's The Theory of the Earth became the basis for modern geology. William Smith started out as a farmer, but went on to create what is thought to be the first geologic map. German Friedrick Mohs studied minerals and came up with a hardness identification scale that is still used by every geologist.
Maps and globes are among the most important tools that scientists have for studying the earth. In the 1500s, Gerardus Mercator created the first globes and maps. William Davis helped make geography a school subject and is a founder of geomorphology, the study of landforms. He also made important discoveries about the cycle of erosion. Many of today's discoveries come from photos taken from satellites that orbit our planet.
Ancient astronomers looked at movements in the sun, moon, and stars to guide travelers and keep track of the seasons. Nicholas Copernicus was the first to challenge people's beliefs that Earth was the center of the solar system and is known as the founder of astronomy. Galileo Galilei built a telescope and spotted craters on the moon and sunspots on the sun. Isaac Newton invented the reflecting telescope and discovered the law of gravity. Astronomers continue to work every day to uncover the mysteries of the universe.
Planck studied physics, the science of matter and energy. He wound up making big discoveries in the area of thermodynamics, which is the study of heat and how it moves. Planck won the Nobel Prize for his work in Quantum Physics, which is the movement inside of atoms. It changed the way scientists understood the world.
Marie Curie's work in radioactivity changed the way scientists think about matter and energy and led to advancements in the treatment of disease. With her fellow scientist and husband, Pierre Curie, she searched for the source of radioactivity and discovered two elements, radium and polonium. They shared the 1903 Nobel Prize, the world's highest science award, for their discovery.
Albert Einstein is probably the most influential scientist and greatest physicist of the twentieth century. He revolutionized our ideas about time and space and is best known for his theory of relativity and his equation E=mc^2, which explains the relationship between energy and mass. By age 30, he was considered by many to be one of the world's greatest scientific thinkers.
Isaac Newton is considered one of the greatest scientists who ever lived. His work changed the way humans understand astronomy, physics, math, and more. He is probably most famous for three laws about the way things move, called Newton's Law of Motion.
Electromagnetism is the combined power of electricity and magnetism. Almost everything we doâ€”from watching television to using a computerâ€”is affected by electromagnets. In the 1830s, scientist Michael Faraday proved that electricity and magnetism are different ways to observe a unified force that he called electromagnetism.
Scientists who have studied light and sound over the last few centuries invented many things that we still use today. Thomas Young, for example, proved that light moves in waves and invented prescription eyeglasses. The study of sound has led to inventions like the telephone and hearing aids. Thomas Edison studied both light and sound and invented such things as a long-lasting light bulb, the phonograph, and the first recording machine.