The farmers, workers, and pioneers of America in the 1800s were nourished by a tradition of hearty, down home cooking that is still a part of our national cuisine - New England baked beans, roast beef, turkey, corn on the cob, and pumpkin pies. With roots in the British Isles, and with important contributions from Native American food plants and cooking techniques, American food and drink quality and seasonal variety was vastly improved during the 1800s by new technologies in transportation, food storage, hygiene, and preservation, growing national and world markets, and not least the delicious ethnic cuisines of new immigrant groups. Hungry for innovation, quality, and economy, Americans in the 1800s became the best fed nation in the history of the world!
Medicine developed into a science in the 1800s, but it was a long evolution from folk remedies and superstition to a modern understanding of how the human body works and how disease is spread. Throughout much of the century, the life expectancy of the average American was decades shorter than it is now. A lack of understanding of simple hygiene contributed to the early death of many women after childbirth, and children routinely died of common childhood diseases like measles. An incorrectly treated broken arm could kill a healthy young man, and pain, disfigurement, and epidemic disease was the fate of many Americans. Traditional herbal remedies were sometimes the best treatments available, while patent medicines often contained toxic substances, and medical procedures were often painful, disgusting, and ultimately useless. The dedicated scientists and medical researchers of the 1800s made a tremendous contribution to the health and happiness of Americans.
Women have made major contributions to science throughout history, including in the field of anthropology, the study of people. Learn about the lives of some of the most amazing women in anthropology, from Jane Goodall to Zora Neale Hurston, as well as their exciting and important work. Discover what it takes to be an anthropologist. Find out about the opportunities for women in the field. Read Women in Anthropology to see if following in the footsteps of the many brilliant women who have made their mark in anthropology is something you want to do.
Women have made major contributions to science throughout history, including in building the foundation of our current scientific knowledge. Learn about the lives of some of the most amazing women who have changed our scientific understanding, from Marie Curie to Ellen Swallow Richards, as well as their exciting and important work. Discover what it takes to be a leader in science. Find out about the opportunities for women in the field. Read Women Who Built Our Scientific Foundations to see if following in the footsteps of the many brilliant women who have made their mark in science is something you want to do.