The Civil Rights Movement was an organized protest by black Americans against their government and the refusal to obey unjust laws during the 1950s, 60s, and 70s. This important book details the evidence in the decades before the movement that led up to the protests: black Americans were denied the right to vote, work, and become citizens. Readers will learn how prejudice and circumstances at the time of an event can influence people's interpretation of evidence. They will discover how evidence from both sides of the Civil Rights struggle was used to change and create laws, and how, even today, our opinion of the Civil Rights Movement is still changing. Readers will learn how to use critical thinking in their own examinations of evidence. Present-day examples show how history repeats itself when evidence is denied or interpreted to one side's benefit.
This compelling book describes the characteristics of an oligarchy, a political system in which the government's power rests with a small but highly influential segment of a society. These groups are often distinguished by their family ties, wealth, social class, profession, or military might. Oligrachical governments throughout history are featured to show examples of how these groups attain and keep power, as well as how they govern.
This amazing book provides a snapshot of systems of government used by various ancient civilizations. Engaging illustrations, detailed timelines, and fascinating information bring back to life the ancient civilizations of Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, Africa, China, and more. Read about what a Chinese dynasty was, the invention of the idea of democracy in Greece, the role of a samurai warrior in Japan, and Mesopotamia's eye-for-an-eye system of ancient justice.
This interesting book describes the characteristics of a theocracy, a political system in which a deity, or god, is considered to be the supreme ruler of the state. Religion plays the central role in governing, and representatives who govern are considered to be divinely guided. Theocratic governments around the world are featured to show examples of the relationship between church and state, how representatives are selected, and how laws are determined and enforced.
This fascinating book describes the characteristics of a dictatorship, a political system in which an individual has absolute power to rule without the consent of citizens. Dictatorships throughout history are featured to show examples of how these individuals attained their positions, either by force or by inheritance, why laws and constitutions do not constrain a dictator's actions, and how every aspect of citizens' lives can be regulated under this system.
This intriguing book describes the characteristics of a monarchy, a political system in which political power (usually inherited) rests with a monarch-a king or queen. Today, only six nations around the world are termed absolute monarchies in which the monarch has complete power. Other nations that have monarchs as heads of state are called constitutional monarchies because the monarch's role is only ceremonial. Monarchies throughout history are featured to show examples of succession within a royal family, the extent of the monarch's governing power, and the monarch's ceremonial duties.
Fought during a period of nation-building in North America, the War of 1812 helped cement America's sovereignty as a nation and Canada's sense of national pride at having successfuly repelled an invasion. This intriguing book helps readers understand the significance and long-term effects of the War of 1812 after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent ended hostilities in 1815. In the United States, these included the creation of heroes, the birth of a national anthemThe Star-Spangled Banner, and the reneging on treaties which destroyed Shawnee Chief Tecumseh's dream of an Indian confederacy; in Canada, it was prosperity through British war chests and a bonding of the provinces through a common foe.
The War of 1812 resulted in a surging sense of nationalism for both the United States and Canada. This fascinating book looks at the achievements of the military leaders and other key figures involved in the conflict during this time of nation-building. Brief biographies give details of their lives and describe the actions of such long-remembered heroes of the war as American President James Madison, Commodore Oliver Perry, General Andrew Jackson, Lieutenant Colonel Charles de Salaberry, Major General Isaac Brock, Shawnee Chief Tecumseh, and Laura Secord.
In 1812, the Napoleonic Wars in far-off Europe began a chain of actions that would lead the United States into war against Britain and its colonies in Canada in the New World. This fascinating book reveals how U.S. president James Madison declared war on Britain for harming U.S. trade with Europe by naval blockade, for impressing U.S. citizens into the service of the British Royal Navy, for siding with Native Americans against the U.S., and for standing in the way of American expansion to the north into Canada.
Pivotal battles waged before, during, and after the War of 1812 are detailed in this fascinating book. Battles between the United States and the British and Canadians saw gains and losses of territory for both sides, all of which proved to be only temporary. For the Native Indians who fought on each side, the result was the loss of their land and autonomy. Famous battles highlighted include those at sea: the USS Constitution vs the Guerriere, the USS Lawrence in the Battle of Lake Erie, and the capture of the USS Chesapeake; and on landthe Battle of Tippecanoe before the war, the Battle of Queenston Heights, and the Battle of New Orleans which took place after the Treaty of Ghent had already been signed ending the war.
This book relays the factual details of the U.S. homefront during World War II. The narrative provides multiple accounts of the event, and readers learn details through the point of view of a female bomber plant worker, an African-American worker, and a Japanese-American business owner. The text offers opportunities to compare and contrast various perspectives in the text while gathering and analyzing information about a historical event.
This book relays the factual details of the creation of the U.S. Constitution. The narrative provides multiple accounts of the event, and readers learn details through the point of view of a serving girl at a Pennsylvania boardinghouse, a law clerk in the state of Virginia, and an apprentice printer. The text offers opportunities to compare and contrast various perspectives in the text while gathering and analyzing information about a historical event.
France wanted to show its support of American democracy by giving the country a gift for the centennial. This gift would become the Statue of Liberty. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
Begins with a factual overview of the War of 1812 and then continues with a fictional story centering on Sophie Turner and her father. The Turners are slaves owned by President James Madison and his wife, Dolley. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
The first monarchies date back to about the time civilization began. Many existing monarchies have survived for centuries. The monarchy of Great Britain is more than 1,000 years old. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
This book discusses several ancient civilizations and their forms of government. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
At the start of the Middle Ages, governments were practically nonexistent. Leaders couldn't organize their subjects or protect their borders. Feudalism evolved to bring the leaders and nobility together. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
Socialism developed as a reaction to the capitalistic ideals of competition and profit. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels created a communist form of socialism in which the change would take place quickly. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
Democracies began in ancient Athens and Rome in the sixth century B.C. These early democracies were the models for American democracy, which became the model for other modern democracies. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
This book looks at the history and responsibilities of the executive branch of the United States government which includes the president, vice-president, cabinet, and other agencies and councils. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
This book looks at the political parties, the democratic process, and elections in the United States. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
This book discusses the Vietnam War, its effects on America, and how the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was conceived. Reading Essentials in Social Studies.
This book takes a scientific look at natural disasters around the world. Reading Essentials in Science.
American society in the 1800s had a rough edge to it. In a nation made up of people of diverse backgrounds and heritage, social controls needed to be strict and enforceable. The extreme economic inequality of Americas cities and the wide open moral code of the frontier led to a culture of crime and violence that still plagues our country. During the 1800s, professional police forces were established in cities, towns, and territories across the continent. On the frontier, justice was often swift and severe, with hanging judges making their reputations as representatives of the law in a lawless land. Long prison sentences in miserable conditions were the rule for criminals, and many a prisoner might have preferred the option of a quick execution. Before the reform of the legal system, which is an ongoing process, there was definitely a separate law, and a separate standard of penalties, for the rich and for the poor. The evolution of a humane penal system and a fairer protection of all citizens under the law is an important contribution of 1800s America to the modern world.
With the principles of democracy firmly established after the War for Independence, Americans in the 1800s took their politics very seriously. As more and more male citizens gained the right to vote, elections became very public, hotly contested, and sometimes even violent. In the cities and towns of America, politicians courted political power and influence among new immigrant communities; buying votes and stuffing ballot boxes was shockingly common. While the major national political issues of foreign policy, taxation, the abolition of slavery, and states rights took center stage in Congress, Americans split along regional and party lines that still exist in the twenty-first century. Scandals over greed and corruption caused whole city governments to fall, but America also produced some of the greatest statesman and political leaders in its history. Former slaves, poor immigrants, and women demanded their right to vote.