Moctezuma was the most famous leader of the powerful Aztec empire. The Aztecs were expert warriors. Most of central Mexico was under their rule at one time. Moctezuma was elected as the ruler of the empire. He was a fair leader who believed in strictly following the laws. He ruled for 17 years until the fall of the Aztec empire.
Mansa Musa was the king of Mali. Located in western Africa, Mali became one of the largest empires during Musa's reign. He helped his empire grow in size and culture by encouraging arts, literature, and architecture. He improved trade with the Arab and opened up other trade routes. During Musa's reign, he made Mali a powerful and wealthy state.
Mesopotamia was located in the Middle East. It was made up of empires such as the Babylonian Empire, Assyrian Empire, Persian Empire, and Phoenician Empire. The Mesopotamians made many contributions to the world, including creating the wheel and glass, using irrigation to farm, creating an alphabet, and developing a calendar system. Each empire made contributions and influenced the world as it exists today.
Hammurabi was a king of Babylon, but he wanted to rule the entire area of Mesopotamia. After only five years of being king, Hammurabi reached his goal. During his reign, Hammurabi did many things to improve and influence both the culture and government of Mesopotamia.
China is the third largest country in the world. China is known for its silk, the Great Wall, and its rich history of dynasties and kings. The Chinese culture has changed greatly over the years, but the Chinese people still celebrate the great changes in their culture and nation.
Confucius was a philosopher who devoted his life to relieving the suffering he saw. His philosophy stressed the natural order of a moral, just, society. After his death, his followers shared his teachings, influencing future generations.
Africa, the second largest continent on Earth, is home to the largest desert and the longest river in the world. Savannas, which are large areas of grass and trees, cover much of Africa. Trade routes gave rise to ancient kingdoms such as the Kush and Aksum. With these and other great kingdoms in Africa, the continent has a rich history in culture, trade, and tradition.
The Greek culture is rich in arts, philosophy, and government. Various civilizations contributed to the Greek culture. The Greeks saw the rise of city-states, as well as the first democratic form of government. Greek gods and Greek wars also influenced the culture. Through these influences, a great nation and culture was developed.
Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher who helped shape Greek beliefs. Socrates believed his purpose in life was to gain wisdom and find the truth by asking questions. Socrates made many people over his methods of teaching. He was arrested and sentenced to death. But, many of Socrates's ideas and beliefs can still be found today.
India's history is closely tied to its location. Because it is between the East and the West, it has been invaded and overtaken multiple times. Each culture that came made a lasting contribution in some way. India has made many transformations of its history, twice splitting into many separate kingdoms. By the early 1800's Great Britain moved into India. Schools and hospitals were built and roads were paved. However, the Indians did not like living under British rule and they fought and gained their independence in 1947.
Siddhartha Gautama was born to the king of a tribe in Northern India. An astrologer told his father that Gautama would either become a king or he would leave his riches behind to save humanity. His father sheltered him from all of the poverty in the streets. When Gautama finally left his palace he saw the suffering of people and wanted to change the world. He started the religion called Buddhism.
Ancient Rome was a city of rich history that influenced other in many ways, including architecture, politics, and language. Rome was the first republic, allowing people to vote and elect officials, instead of having kings. Even though the Roman Empire ended in A.D. 476, its legacy still lives on today.
Hatshepsut was a young woman who became the first female pharaoh of Egypt. When her father, Thutmose I, died, Hatshepsut was the only heir. Since she was female, leaders were afraid to make her Pharaoh. She declared herself Pharaoh in 1501 B.C. and ruled Egypt for about 20 years.
Ancient Egyptian civilizations first began along the Nile River when nomads grew tired of the dangers of traveling and settled into villages for safety. With a gift for building, they began to create their own bricks and later discovered a way to build from stone; this lead to the construction of the great pyramids. Pharaohs ruled the society and were highly respected. Because of its location Pharaohs had a difficult time protecting the land from intruders and Egypt was eventually conquered by the Roman Empire.