Africa, the second largest continent on Earth, is home to the largest desert and the longest river in the world. Savannas, which are large areas of grass and trees, cover much of Africa. Trade routes gave rise to ancient kingdoms such as the Kush and Aksum. With these and other great kingdoms in Africa, the continent has a rich history in culture, trade, and tradition.
The Greek culture is rich in arts, philosophy, and government. Various civilizations contributed to the Greek culture. The Greeks saw the rise of city-states, as well as the first democratic form of government. Greek gods and Greek wars also influenced the culture. Through these influences, a great nation and culture was developed.
Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher who helped shape Greek beliefs. Socrates believed his purpose in life was to gain wisdom and find the truth by asking questions. Socrates made many people over his methods of teaching. He was arrested and sentenced to death. But, many of Socrates's ideas and beliefs can still be found today.
India's history is closely tied to its location. Because it is between the East and the West, it has been invaded and overtaken multiple times. Each culture that came made a lasting contribution in some way. India has made many transformations of its history, twice splitting into many separate kingdoms. By the early 1800's Great Britain moved into India. Schools and hospitals were built and roads were paved. However, the Indians did not like living under British rule and they fought and gained their independence in 1947.
Siddhartha Gautama was born to the king of a tribe in Northern India. An astrologer told his father that Gautama would either become a king or he would leave his riches behind to save humanity. His father sheltered him from all of the poverty in the streets. When Gautama finally left his palace he saw the suffering of people and wanted to change the world. He started the religion called Buddhism.
Ancient Rome was a city of rich history that influenced other in many ways, including architecture, politics, and language. Rome was the first republic, allowing people to vote and elect officials, instead of having kings. Even though the Roman Empire ended in A.D. 476, its legacy still lives on today.
Hatshepsut was a young woman who became the first female pharaoh of Egypt. When her father, Thutmose I, died, Hatshepsut was the only heir. Since she was female, leaders were afraid to make her Pharaoh. She declared herself Pharaoh in 1501 B.C. and ruled Egypt for about 20 years.
Ancient Egyptian civilizations first began along the Nile River when nomads grew tired of the dangers of traveling and settled into villages for safety. With a gift for building, they began to create their own bricks and later discovered a way to build from stone; this lead to the construction of the great pyramids. Pharaohs ruled the society and were highly respected. Because of its location Pharaohs had a difficult time protecting the land from intruders and Egypt was eventually conquered by the Roman Empire.
Phillis Wheatley was the first black person in America to have a book published, opening the door for other black writers and female authors. She was kidnapped and brought to the colonies as a child and served as a slave to a family in Boston. Phillis learned to read and write at a young age.
The American Indian culture consisted of specific customs and traditions that regulated everything from who would lead the tribes to who would marry within the tribes. They kept precise, detailed accounts of their tribal histories because they foresaw the importance of passing down their histories.
Pocahontas was the daughter of the great Chief Powhatan. Pocahontas was instrumental in helping Jamestown settlers survive a difficult winter and literally keeping peace between two diverse cultures.
Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 with the intent of moving five large tribes to Indian Territory. The tribes could either move to the reservations or assimilate. As settlers kept moving west, more and more tribes were encountered, and all ultimately found themselves going to reservations. This new way of life was a vast change for the Indians.
Sitting Bull was a powerful Hunkpapa Lakota Indian Chief whoâ€”along with the Lakota Indians and other nearby tribesâ€”was involved in brutal battles with the United States over land issues. All tribes that were fighting to avoid the reservation eventually surrendered, and the Lakota people were no exception.
Many talented and skilled immigrants came to America from various places in the world and brought with them their own cultures and traditions to enrich the American culture and way of life. Among the famous immigrants whose lives have impacted the twentieth century are Elijah McCoy, Irving Berlin, Father Edward Flanagan, and I. M. Pei.
The Middle East is comprised of many small countries, each with its own government. Volatile issues of religious extremism, the supply and demand of oil, and the establishment of the nation of Israel in 1948 have caused constant conflict. Several prominent leaders have arisen in the Middle East and have worked toward peace in this region, while others have been instigators of violence throughout the world.
The Middle East is a place of conflict based on the controversial nation of Israel, religious extremism, and the Middle Eastern oil supply. The Middle East produces 65% of the world's oil. Oil has been responsible for many interactions between industrialized countries and the Middle East. Many times, those interactions have led to conflict. Its history and culture provide insight and understanding to world events taking place there.
Martin Luther King Jr. grew up knowing that there needed to be a change in the way that African Americans were treated, and he held a dream from the time he was a young boy that he would help make that change happen. Unlike most of the activists in the Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King Jr. was committed to nonviolence.
Although slavery was illegal at the beginning of the twentieth century, segregation was prevalent, especially in the South. Through many uprisings, protests, and demonstrations, segregation was finally abolished and civil rights were established for people of varying colors, races, and genders. Today, we celebrate diversity in our nation because of the Civil Rights Movement of the twentieth century.