W. E. B. Du Bois was born a few years after the end of the Civil War, and he dedicated his life to the fight for racial equality. Du Bois was highly educated, and he used his knowledge to speak out against segregation and the commonly held belief that blacks were inferior to whites.
The first enslaved Africans landed in North America in 1619 to begin a life of forced, unpaid labor, harsh living conditions, and cruel treatment. The Southern economy grew dependent on slave labor, and the terrible institution was not abolished until after the American Civil War. Although slavery ended almost 150 years ago in the United States, its legacies of racism, prejudice, and the struggle for equal treatment persist today.
Booker T. Washington rose from his slavery beginnings to become a national leader in education and civil rights. Beginning his career as a teacher and developing into a renowned speaker, Washington's influence is still felt today through Tuskegee University, which he originally founded.
As an influential leader in U.S. politics, Condoleezza Rice became one of the foremost authorities on the Soviet Union during the Cold War and served in advisory roles for two presidents. Her intelligence and drive led her to one of the highest-ranking jobs in the White House, secretary of state.
Born into slavery, Frederick Douglass was struck by the unfairness and cruelty of slave life and escaped as a young man to the North. A skilled speaker and writer of Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Douglass became a fierce fighter for the end of slavery and later led the early civil rights movement.
Madam C. J. Walker's skill as a businesswoman and desire to create products for black women drove her to become the first black female millionaire. While improving women's lives with her products, she employed women as sales agents and hair culturists, all while giving back to her community.
Marian Anderson broke through discrimination and racism to become one of the greatest classical singers of all time. Her exceptional talent allowed her to travel to many countries to perform, showing the world firsthand that the color of one's skin does not determine one's talent or inner strength.