American society in the 1800s had a rough edge to it. In a nation made up of people of diverse backgrounds and heritage, social controls needed to be strict and enforceable. The extreme economic inequality of Americas cities and the wideopen moral code of the frontier led to a culture of crime and violence that still plagues our country. During the 1800s, professional police forces were established in cities, towns, and territories across the continent. On the frontier, justice was often swift and severe, with hanging judges making their reputations as representatives of the law in a lawless land. Long prison sentences in miserable conditions were the rule for criminals, and many a prisoner might have preferred the option of a quick execution. Before the reform of the legal systemwhich is an ongoing processthere was definitely a separate law, and a separate standard of penalties, for the rich and for the poor. The evolution of a humane penal system and a fairer protection of all citizens under the law is an important contribution of 1800s America to the modern world.
With the principles of democracy firmly established after the War for Independence, Americans in the 1800s took their politics very seriously. As more and more male citizens gained the right to vote, elections became very public, hotly contested, and sometimes even violent. In the cities and towns of America, politicians courted political power and influence among new immigrant communities; buying votes and stuffing ballot boxes was shockingly common. While the major national political issues of foreign policy, taxation, the abolition of slavery, and states rights took center stage in Congress, Americans split along regional and party lines that still exist in the twentyfirst century. Scandals over greed and corruption caused whole city governments to fall, but America also produced some of the greatest statesman and political leaders in its history. Former slaves, poor immigrants, and women demanded their right to vote.
Were all here because of people who met and fell in love in the past! In the 1800s, most young men and women were bound by powerful traditions of family, church, and society that limited their choices in romance and marriage. As an economic and communitybuilding institution, marriage options were traditionally controlled by the older generation. Marriages were often arranged by families, and the bride and grooms personal feelings for each other were much less important than they are today. But as in so many other ways, America was a new and more open society. Communities of people from different and diverse backgrounds were established in a new land, and young people came together in a freer, more open environment. Romantic love flourished in the America of the 1800s as it never had before, with a whole variety of courting and marriage customs, many of which we still cherish today.
Founded on the principles of religious freedom, America in the 1800s was fertile ground for the expansion of religious movements and all kinds of experiments in spiritual matters. Americans in the 1800s took their religion very seriously. Away from the authority of established churches, the American frontier from upstate New York to the wilds of the Utah territory was a hotbed of new, radical religion based on a personal experience of salvation, direct revelation, and enthusiastic, highly emotional gatherings at camp meetings. At the forefront of the movement to abolish slavery and womens rights, idealistic men and women in the more established Protestant churches heard a new social gospel from an educated and progressive clergy. Meanwhile, large numbers of Catholic immigrants and Jews from Central and Eastern Europe established their own religious institutions in a new land. The religious history of America in the 1800s is rich and diverse and highly influential in the social and political evolution of our country.
This series of nonfiction readers will grab a student's interest from the very first page! Designed with struggling readers in mind, these riveting 64-page softcover books offer short chapters on significant disasters. Each chapter is its own mini-book, which includes a timeline, key terms, and interesting facts. Fascinating black and white photographs keep the pages turning. A bibliography encourages further topical reading. Disasters are inherently frightening, riveting, and involving. Grabbed straight from the headlines, these disasters leave tragedy, destruction, and years of anguish: The Munich Massacre, Sara Jane Olson, The Achille Lauro, The Unabomber, Oklahoma City, 9/11, The London Underground, and more.
Mexicans today are proud of their rich heritage and their beautiful land, but they also recognize that their nation has many problems, including widespread poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and drugrelated violence. Many of Mexicos ongoing problemssuch as illegal immigration, environmental issues, and drug traffickingalso affect its northern neighbor, the United States. Mexican Facts and Figures is an overview that will tell you about Mexicos past and its present, while also providing statistical information about the countrys 31 states and its federal district.
Over the past two decades, the Mexican government has signed free trade agreements with the United States, Canada, the European Union, Japan, and many countries in Central and South America. These agreements have helped establish Mexico as a key exporter of goods to other countries, and have helped to stabilize the countrys economy. Today, according to the World Bank, Mexico has the worlds 14th-largest economy, with the countrys annual gross domestic product valued at more than $1.25 trillion. Finding a Financial Balance: The Economy of Mexico provides information about Mexicos manufacturing and industrial sectors, agriculture, natural resources, and tourist industry. It describes problems that the nation faces, such as Mexicos crumbling infrastructure and the vast economic disparity between wealthy and poor citizens, and how the Mexican government has begun to address these problems.