French scientist Louis Pasteur has been called the founder of modern medicine. He proved that germs spread disease, and his work has saved millions of lives. A university chemistry professor, Pasteur is best known for discovering pasteurization, a process by which bacteria and molds are killed when liquids are heated. The process was named for him and is used today.
British scientist Robert Hooke built an early microscope and was the first scientist to observe cells and give them their name. Anton van Leeuwenhoek created the best microscopes of his time and used them to study living organisms. Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Schwann, and Rudolf Virchow created Cell Theory, which says that all living things are made of cells; cells are the smallest part of a living thing; and all cells come from other cells.
Gregor Johann Mendel is known as the father of modern genetics. He used cross-breeding to develop different kinds of peas. This allowed him to make predictions about the outcomes. These are now called Mendel's Laws of Heredity. They explain how traits are passed from generation to generation. Mendel also discovered dominant and recessive genes.
Women have made major contributions to science throughout history, including in the field of medicine. Learn about the lives of some of the most amazing women in medicine, from Rita LeviMontalcini to Margaret Chan, as well as their exciting and important work. Discover what it takes to be a doctor. Find out about the opportunities for women in medicine. Read Women in Medicine to see if following in the footsteps of the many brilliant women who have made their mark in medicine is something you want to do.
A look at animal and human cells, and the internal structures that allow them to obtain energy, get rid of wastes, grow, and reproduce
There are 90 different elements, like the oxygen that we breathe, that can be found in nature. When two or more elements combine, they are held together by a chemical bond and form a compound. In 1869, chemist Dmitri Mendeléev organized the elements into a chart that is known as the Periodic Table of Elements.
Explains how oranges are grown and harvested; discusses how oranges are turned into orange juice and packaged at a factory; and how orange juice becomes available to consumers.