Free at last! Hopeful African Americans began the long journey to build their lives from scratch as U.S. law declared all slaves free in 1865. But many whites fought bitterly against change. Signs above water fountains, restrooms, and other public places clearly separated WHITES from COLOREDS, while the Ku Klux Klan terrorized the night. Leaders like Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, A. Philip Randolph, and Martin Luther King, Jr. stood up to the ugly reality of racism in America. Laws and hearts slowly changed to make the American Dream a possibility for all of its citizens. Today, the United States celebrates the rich history, music, and art of the black community. But with holdovers of hatred, pride, and prejudice, has the country achieved true equality?
Most of the people who worked on the Underground Railroad were not well-known, but many stood out and became famous. The workers came from different races, occupations, and all walks of life. Some spread the word about the injustice of slavery through writing or lectures. Some volunteered behind the scenes, sewing clothes and donating goods to help the runaways. Others risked their lives daily, leading fugitives through swamps and forests and past slave catchers to freedom. Those who were caught were fined, jailed, or even executed. But they did not give up until freedom was won for all.
The Underground Railroad was not a transportation system with metal tracks and whistling trains that zipped along a grid of tracks through tunnels below the ground. Instead, this system was an organized network of people who - in utmost secrecy - helped others escape the bonds of slavery. The routes to freedom were filled with danger, but the risks were worth it. Climb aboard to travel back in time and find out how this system of passengers, conductors, and stationmasters saved thousands of lives and helped change the nation.
The nightmare for enslaved Africans began on the Middle Passage - the journey across the ocean to America. Chained together by their hands and feet, the people were crammed into a ships dark belly, sometimes for weeks. When they arrived, they were sold at auction like so much cattle. Then, for generations, they faced bondage at the hands of cruel masters, forced to work sunup to sundown planting and harvesting crops, cleaning houses, or performing other tasks that would boost the white mans profits. Refused basic civil rights and often torn from their families, the slaves looked for ways to find freedom and better their lives. Flight was risky, even with the help of the Underground Railroad. For many, it was the only option.
The ancient hidden city of Derinkuyu, Turkey, was forgotten for centuries until a man discovered a hidden wall while doing renovations on his home in 1963. Ancient Underground Structures uses cutaway illustrations to detail the hidden history of ancient structures, used by such people as troglodytes who inhabited underground churches, markets, mines, and burial chambers.
From ancient Pueblo homes to the Australian mining town where half the population lives underground, this appealing book uses cutaway illustrations to introduce readers to homes that were built below ground. Labeled diagrams of underground homes and fun facts will make this enjoyable read highly useful.
Ever wonder how fault lines, caves, and volcanoes were formed and how people came to live on or next to them? Earth’s Underground Structures uses cutaway illustrations to examine some of the world’s most interesting natural underground structures created by Earth's forces and processes.